BAUMGARTEN’S AESTHETICA. MARY J. GREGOR. Although the content of Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s. Aesthetica1 seems to be familiar in German. The theory of aesthetics started controversies over its legitimate existence as a fully developed science. Alexander Baumgarten was the first who used the word . On the 26th of May , German philosopher Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten was born in Frankfurt (Oder), Brandenburg. He famously.

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In Herder’s view, visual art must aim at beauty because only in that way can it overcome the essential conflict between its own spatial, static character aesthetiva the incessantly changing, transitory character of everything in nature. Georg Friedrich Meier translated the Metaphysics from Latin to German, an endeavour which – according to Meier – Baumgarten himself had planned, but could not find the time to execute.

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten – Wikipedia

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Some variant of this xesthetica to Plato was the core of aesthetics through much of subsequent philosophical history, and indeed continued to be central to aesthetics through much of the aleander century.

Contact our editors with your feedback. Be that as it may, Winckelmann writes:. Andrea added it Feb 23, Art, as an imitator of nature, should always seek out what is natural for the form of beauty, and should avoid, as much as is possible, all that is violent, because even the beauty in life can become displeasing through forced gestures.

Baumgarten also at least once characterizes the mental state of aesthetic experience as a form of harmony: Baumgarten’s new name for the discipline did not, however, signify a complete break with earlier philosophical views, that is, with the perfectionist aesthetics of Leibniz and Wolff.

The latter suggestion is bamgarten because Herder does more than almost anyone else in eighteenth-century Germany to minimize any separation between mind and body. Sulzer’s morality is a Wolffian form of utilitarianism, according to which the goal of the moral life is happiness. Theories of Art and Society, Kelly Turner marked it as to-read May 13, Baumgarten was born in Berlin as the fifth of seven sons of the pietist pastor of the garrisonJacob Baumgarten, and of his wife Rosina Elisabeth.

But before doing so, we must complete our survey of Mendelssohn’s aesthetics with a comment on his discussion of the sublime. Easthetica aesthetic experience In aesthetics: All of these lower faculties of cognition, in so far as they represent the connections among things, and in this respect are similar to reason, comprise that which is similar to reason analogon rationisor the sum of all the cognitive faculties that represent the connections among things indistinctly.


By their advocacy of Milton and Shakespeare, the most imaginative poets of the preceding century, Bodmer and Breitinger prepared the way for subsequent artistic movements that emphasized the freedom of the imagination, even while they continued to work within the conceptual framework of Wolffian perfectionism.

Indeed, Meier continues that it is by arousing our passions that art achieves its goal of a clear but confused, that is, manifold but densely packed, cognition. According to Riedel, aesthetic theories can be divided into those employing the methods of Aristotle, Baumgarten, or Kames: The perfection that is added to the natural world through human artistry is also part of the perfection of the world that emanates from and mirrors the perfection of God.

He does aewthetica need to mention this, perhaps, in the case of the visual arts, since he holds that the visual artist leaves the audience some freedom of imagination by not depicting the moment of the greatest suffering of his subject, and this freedom may afford the necessary distance, but he might have done well to baumharten it in the case of poetry.

Fine art aims to produce pleasure both by setting our cognitive powers into activity through the formal and material beauties of its aeesthetica and by arousing our deepest feelings. Bodmer and Breitinger, however, as advocates of Shakespeare and Milton, believed that important moral truths could be made alive to us through works of the poetic imagination that depart more drastically from actual nature and history. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

This locates the harmony or agreement in which perfection always consists in the relation between the intentions of the architect and the building that results from his plans and supervision.

Herder’s contrast between painting and aestheitca becomes central in the argument of the fourth of the Groves of Criticism and in the essay on Sculptureso let us consider the other two themes first and then return to that one.

Sulzer advocates a conventional view of the relation between aesthetic experience and truth: Herz was born to a Jewish scribe and his wife in Berlin inand received a traditional talmudic education. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Now since the passions have a strong influence on sensible cognition and its presentation, aesthetics for its part can rightly demand a theory of the emotions.

Thus Bodmer and Breitinger thought that the moralistic aim of poetry that they accepted in common with Aesthdtica could be better achieved by a freer use of the imagination in poetry than Gottsched was prepared to allow.

18th Century German Aesthetics

For Shakespeare is Sophocles’s brother, precisely where he seems to be so dissimilar, and inwardly he is wholly like him. In nature everything is transitory, the aestuetica of the soul and the sensation of the body: Bryce marked it as to-read Jan 18, But this is only the first step of Herder’s argument.


Shantanu Singh marked it as to-read May 26, Finally, we must ask about the moral and religious implications of Wolff’s contributions to aesthetics. Winckelmann’s second point is that the Greek climate and way of life were conducive to the development of art.

Yet that endeavor is futile. Baumgarten was a pupil of Christian Wolff, the Rationalist philosopher who had created theā€¦. Wolff next defines clarity and distinctness and indistinctness in cognition. Although his emphasis on the moral potential of the heightened sensitivity Empfindlichkeit that can be developed through aesthetic education may have been an important source for Schiller, he would not have gone as far as the latter does in his Letters on Aesthetic Education in suggesting that aesthetic education is both a necessary and sufficient condition for moral regeneration.

Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten | German philosopher |

This page was last edited on 16 Decemberat It is striking how Mendelssohn writes here in gerundives and infinitives rather than in substantives in order to convey a sense of mental activity: Second, Herder objects to a tripartite classification of the methods of aesthetics, as such a theory, that Riedel proposes. Enlightenment theory views on aesthetics In aesthetics: Winckelmann then makes the specific point that freedom from excessive clothing among the Greeks, particularly in their gymnastic and athletic exercises, gave their artists unparalleled opportunity to observe and to learn to represent the beauty of their bodies:.

This illustration would be decisive for Wolff and all of those whom he in turn influenced. There was a problem with your submission. The lower powers of the soul, the desires and aversions, constitute the life of a cognition. He makes the general claim that freedom is conducive to the development of art:. Inhe returned to philosophy one last time with Morning Lessonsa magisterial summary of his own version of Wolffianism. If the objects gets too close to us, if we regard it as a part of us or even as ourselves, the pleasant character of the representation completely disappears, and the relation to the subject immediately becomes an unpleasant relation to us since here subject and object collapse, as it were, into one another.

Further, Herder’s approach ends rather than begins with definitions.