Global System for Mobile Communications – Railway (GSM-R) is a radio communication system offering a wide range of voice and data services needed for. This group was named “Groupe Spéciale Mobile” and the system name GSM arose. This abbreviation has since been interpreted in other ways. This group was named “Groupe Spéciale Mobile” and the system name GSM arose. This abbreviation has since been interpreted in other ways, but the most.

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The distinctions between these data services are based on the users who can be connected to the PSTN, ISDN or a PSPDN network and the mode of transmission packet or circuit switched, whether end-to-end digital or not, synchronous or asynchronous.

Each cell is identified by an identification number called Cell Global Identity CGIwhich comprises the following elements: Which of the following is a requirement for the GSM specifications? It can seem to be an inexpensive way of gathering information, but do consider that large resources are engaged when customer calls are followed up problem identification and location. This also enables switching for half rate speech. In the case of speech, the amount of bits is increased from per 20 ms to bits per 20 ms.

Data services It becomes necessary to characterise the bearer specifying the data rates and type of modem to be used. Message Transfer Part layers The lowest level, MTP layer 1 physical connectionsdefines the physical and electrical characteristics.

The need to supervise a call.

SYSTRA Training Document | Muhammad Suleman Khan –

In other words, by using a sectorised antenna the covered distance increases. Operator specific 32 bit binary number. To enable the efficient transmission of digital speech information over the radio Air Interface, the digital speech signal is compressed.


This is a major difference when compared to fixed telephone networks, which is why we have to take a closer look at it in the following chapter. One common misperception is that GSM network planning is the task of selecting and placing out base stations, syshra this is only one part.

Transcoder, Submultiplexer, Base Transceiver Station. With the help of a synchronisation signal in a TDMA frame, the mobile synchronises itself to the network.

Each mobile station must send a burst a burst occupies one TDMA timeslot of data at a different time to all the other mobile stations in the same cell. Systrx the years, there has been a vast improvement in signalling technology and the lady operator has long since been replaced by automatic digital switching exchanges. Nokia City Talk and Intratalk both have similar features and can be a one sustra two cabinet version.

The Base Transceiver Station measures the time delay from the received signal compared to the delay that would come from a mobile station that was transmitting at zero distance from the Base Transceiver Station.

GSM-Systra – [PDF Document]

It was not possible to have many different signalling messages. The rule is that the higher the frequency, the smaller the size of the cell. He decides to spend the night in a hotel in Madrid. He would then hear his phone ringing. Its capacity is 1 or 2 TRXs in omnidirectional configuration.

She finds the basic facts, such as citizenship, identification and the name of the professor, and also the name of the authority that has released the document. Allocation of the frequencies: The first part was responsible for transferring the message within a signalling network.

Moreover, there is a need to create rules for routing, protection, synchronisation and sstra management. From the call establishment point of view, the MS must have a connection through these two interfaces before a call can be established.


For example, it is possible to make the observation for only 15 minutes and then, in the formula above, calls per 15 minutes is taken and it is divided by seconds. The HLR sends the result back, which may be the final result or some other messages might also follow or it might not be the last result.

The hotel is an establishment that provides services. Which of the following is not truly an open interface? The network operator observes and maintains network quality and service offered through the NMS. To analyse the dialled digits.


There are eight different sequence patterns, and the one to be used is determined at the time of call set-up. At this point, we have to summarise what happened behind the scenes to be able to understand the rest of the process. One important task is to choose between leased lines and microwave links. If a fading dip occurs at the position of one antenna, the other antenna will still be able to receive the signal.

Its large operational temperature range of The most important ones are: Factors to consider when, for instance, making a BTS site survey are the surroundings, possible structural and geographical obstacles and existing radio equipment. Several requirements must be taken into consideration already in the early stages of the planning process: